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Diabetes is not a sentence. It is a certain way of life, and this way of life can be realized throug

Diabetes mellitus has three main types: first, second, and gestational diabetes. We will talk about the latter in a separate post.

All types of diabetes are characterized by dysregulation of blood glucose levels, but the causes, development, and consequences vary.

The level of glucose in the blood is a very important indicator that should not deviate from the norm too much and for too long. In order for muscle and fat tissue to absorb and use glucose, a signal from insulin is needed. Without it, there is too much glucose in the blood, and this harms literally the entire body.

In the case of both types of diabetes, it is important to control diabetes and the conditions that can accompany it: high blood pressure and cholesterol, which significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including heart attack and stroke.

It is also important to try to prevent the development of complications of diabetes: deterioration or loss of vision (retinopathy), kidney failure (nephropathy), impaired sensitivity (diabetic "socks/gloves" syndrome, diabetic foot), which may develop as a result of microcirculation disorders and damage to nerve endings.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the body's own immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. As a result, insulin becomes less and less, and it becomes insufficient to adequately maintain a stable level of glucose in the blood. That is why, with type 1 diabetes, a person needs injections of this hormone and constant monitoring of the level of glucose in the blood. This is both measurement at home with a glucometer, and laboratory determination of the level of glycated hemoglobin.

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that depends more on lifestyle (improper diet, sleep, exercise, or the use of certain medications) than on genetic predisposition, although it is also present. It develops over years and is preceded by long-term insulin resistance (loss of sensitivity of cells to insulin). This condition is also called pre-diabetes. In this case, there is often no need for insulin injections. It is there, but you need to restore the body's ability to respond to its signals.

Controlling type 2 diabetes consists of reducing calories in the diet, reducing body weight, and maintaining a balanced diet that is low in sugar and "fast carbohydrates", exercise, normalizing sleep, and taking medications that restore insulin sensitivity as prescribed by the doctor.

Diabetes is not a sentence. It is a certain way of life, and this way of life can be realized through joint efforts.

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